Lightweight Structures

Characteristic for these type of systems are their low weight in relation to their spanned, roofed are enclosed spaces. These constructions are very slender and have large span lengths. This is accomplished by avoiding that the loads are converted to bending stresses, instead they should be deducted as tension and compression. The FE-analysis of light shell structures is among the most difficult tasks for the engineer and the software.

Capability Characteristics

  • Analysis of the entire system with the combination of different types of elements such as beams, slabs, discs and shells using different materials like steel, glass, concrete and membranes
  • User defined materials
  • User defined stress- strain curves for material and spring elements
  • Fire load case analyses
  • Construction phases with primary load cases
  • Non-linear material behaviour for concrete or metallic materials
  • 3rd order theory
  • Ultimate load procedure
  • Local and global stability analysis (plate buckling, lateral buckling, buckling)
  • Eigenvalues and Eigen mode shapes
  • Global and local imperfections based on Eigen mode shapes
  • Plate buckling Eigenvalues for beam elements
  • Warping torsion
  • Cables with inner sag
  • Pre-stress of arbitrary free form shells with pre-stressed tendons

Membrane and Form Finding

  • Form finding with the FE method acc. to membrane theory
  • Iterative analysis with interaction between primary and secondary structure
  • Orthotropic pre-stress
  • Minimum area (membrane) with isotopic pre-stress
  • Form finding with inner pressure (Pneumatic designs)
  • Generation of cutting patterns considering the compensation
  • Considering the shear stiffness of the membrane
  • Considering fold formations 
  • Generation of Cutting patterns